Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has called on Muslims to reject contraception and have more children.
In a speech broadcast live on TV, he said "no Muslim family" should consider birth control or family planning.
"We will multiply our descendants," said Mr Erdogan, who became president in August 2014 after serving as prime minister for 12 years.
His AK Party has its roots in Islamism and many of its supporters are conservative Muslims.
In Monday's speech in Istanbul, the Turkish leader placed the onus on women, particularly on "well-educated future mothers", to not use birth control and to ensure the continued growth of Turkey's population.
Mr Erdogan himself is a father of four. He has previously spoken out against contraception, describing it as "treason" when speaking at a wedding ceremony in 2014.
He has also urged women to have at least three children, and has said women cannot be treated as equal to men.