The Venezuelan president, Nicolas Maduro, has threatened the seizure of factories that have stopped production and the jailing of their owners.
In a speech to supporters in the capital Caracas, he said the country had to recover the means of production, to counter its deep economic crisis.
On Friday, he introduced a new, nationwide state of emergency.
Opposition protesters have been rallying in Caracas to push for a recall vote to eject him from power.
Mr Maduro said the state of emergency was needed to combat foreign aggression, which he blamed for Venezuela's problems.
And he said military exercises would take place next weekend to counter "foreign threats".
There are severe shortages of food, medicines and basic goods which Mr Maduro argues are due to business leaders and the US waging an economic war against his government.
The threat to seize closed factories came after Venezuela's largest food and beverage company, the Polar Group, halted production of beer, blaming government mismanagement for stopping it importing barley.
The group's billionaire owner, Lorenzo Mendoza, is a fierce critic of President Maduro.
"We must take all measures to recover productive capacity, which is being paralysed by the bourgeoisie," Mr Maduro told a rally in Caracas.
"Anyone who wants to halt [production] to sabotage the country should get out, and those who do must be handcuffed and sent to the PGV [Venezuelan General Penitentiary]," he said.
"We're going to tell imperialism and the international right that the people are present, with their farm instruments in one hand and a gun in the other... to defend this sacred land," he added.