the Bible is true because it is God’s Word because it says it is true. This may be considered circular
No, it is circular.
where does the basis of logic come from that has defined circular arguments specifically?
Human convention. But ok, let me guess, you're going to say "it comes from God", right? And you're going to say that your statement is therefore confirmed. Yes?
So, let's change the prerequisite and see if the argument remains standing. Ready?
"We say God doesn't exist."
Now repeat your argument, starting with "we say therefore ...".
We can of course just make up a new theorem which says "circular logic is valid." We can also base our math on "x = -x". Why not? Splurge.