1) Actually, both would be forms of evolution. The latter is merely evolution on a longer timescale. What you refer to as "macroevolution" is the long term accumulation of every tiny changes within group genetics, eventually leading to speciation, and there is NOTHING in place to stop it from happening. To accept "microevolution" (your word, not mine) is to accept the vehicle upon which "macroevolution" rides. You're pissing on your own feet here.
2) Both "definitions" are observable and testable. If we cannot observe something directly, we look for fossil evidence and use the theory to make accurate predictions.
3) First off, there is nothing in place to prevent additional proteins from mutating within our DNA. A duplication of a single protein = more "information" (although "altered chemical reactions" would be a more accurate term). Secondly, human DNA has fewer base pairs than that of many other animals, and all animals have fewer base pairs than many genuses of algae. So, even if your little idea about DNA not being able to become more complex were true, it wouldn't disprove evolution. Humans are not more genetically complex than every other lifeform, nor do we need to be. Evolution plays upon quality, not quantity.
4) You completely fail at three areas of science -- biology, chemistry and physics. A) The laws of thermodynamics don't even apply here. Earth is not a closed system. B) If they did, they would nullify your first definition as well. C) Abiogenesis, while related to evolution, is not the same thing. They're two separate theories. D) DNA, which is made up of a series of proteins, requires only a series of electrochemical reactions. By replicating early Earth conditions, we've already managed to show that these proteins will form. Given that the first life was nothing more than replicating DNA, rather than a fully-formed cell suddenly popping out of no where, abiogenesis is actually quite feasible.
By the way, it's cute how you're throwing these terms around in order to make yourself sound educated and intelligent. Too bad that some of us actually know what they mean, and recognize that you're simply parroting what you've read on the internet.