What Are Volcanoes and Why do They Exist?
Jeffrey J. Wolynski
November 2, 2019
Rockledge, FL 32955
Abstract: Geologists do not know what volcanoes are and why they exist on Earth. Now we can finally answer the basic questions with stellar metamorphosis. Volcanoes are composed of liquid rock escaping the surface, but why liquid rock? Why don't all the other rocky objects all have active volcanoes? Why are some worlds almost absent huge numbers of volcanoes? This paper addresses this.
Volcanoes are the areas in the Earth's crust where heat can escape from earlier stages of evolution. They are only apparent because Earth has a set of qualities that are unique to its specific stage of evolution.
1. It is old enough to have formed a solid surface crust internally from gas giant stages of evolution.
2. It is young enough to still have remaining heat escaping the surface.
3. It is evolved enough to have had the vast majority of its supremely thick atmosphere dissipated so we can see them.
4. The heat escapes as liquid rock, as that is the lower phase as opposed to superheated gas and plasma. Earth in younger stages was totally plasma like the Sun, and also had superheated gas internally like Jupiter and Neptune.
5. Some superheated gas also escapes volcanoes, and is why many of them are so explosive when they erupt. The gas was trapped there in the crust when the Earth was a gas giant. It is still escaping out from the crust even today, 4.5+ billion years into its evolution.
Volcanos are predicted via stellar metamorphosis to exist underneath the thick oceans of ocean worlds where there is a crust forming, all the way to late stage Earths, when the crust is just thin enough for heat to escape on the surface. Once the crust thickens up too much, there will be an increase in shield super-volcanos on the surface, similar to Olympus Mons on Mars. This will allow for the remaining heat to escape. Mars is between 20-30 billion years old.
When even greater scales of time are introduced things change, as Venus in the General Theory is about 450-700 billion years old. Venus is easily about 100+ times older than the Earth, and it shows. What is interesting to note is that the internal heat of Venus has escaped, which is evidenced by its lack of a strong magnetic field like the Earth. As well, its total diameter is about 400 miles smaller than the Earth. What this means to me, since heat has escaped, that Venus's actual diameter when it was hosting life like the Earth was probably a bit bigger. The entire crust has since then contracted from gravitational collapse and thermodynamic contraction, and no earthquakes can occur due to this fact. The crust has thickened over its lifetime, to extreme depths far beyond the Earth and even Mars. I would guess Venus's crust is at least 1,000 miles thick. All of its volcanoes are extinct because of its extreme age, easily 100+ times older than the Earth. It is a fossilized star. It is not the extreme age of Mercury though, with that fossil star we have a completely different picture.
Mercury in the General Theory is 7-32.75 trillion years old. Most evidence of volcanism is gone on Mercury, this is because it is so incredibly old, that the surface has been irradiated away over trillions of years. An enormous quantity of rocks and minerals that compose the star have been broken back into the elemental components and escaped the fossil star. One trillion years of wandering outer space will do that. Multiple trillions of years in Mercury's case will cause it to even decrease in mass by significant amounts. Given the escape velocity is much lower than the Earth, rocks and minerals broken up by irradiation can easily escape, especially when they become charged.
The astronomers believe Venus, Mars, Mercury and the Earth are all about the same age, but long story short, their volcanic histories rat them out. They are not anywhere close in age, in fact, some are multiple magnitudes older than others. The astronomers' theories are FUBAR. The fact that Mercury, Mars, Venus and Earth are close to the Sun, all orbiting it gives the illusion that they are related. They are not related. It is clear by examining their volcanic histories. Earth is the youngest of the bunch.
Earth: ~4.5 billion (This might change)
Mars: 20-30 billion (4.4-6.7 EA, EA means Earth Age)
Venus: 450-700 billion (100-155 EA)
Mercury: 7-32.75 trillion (1,555- 7,280 EA)
imageAs you will notice, Earths are not dead yet. They have left over heat from earlier stages of stellar evolution. Also what is important to notice is that young Earths shine, as they are the stars themselves. So when you read geology books and they say Earth is hot because of radioactive decay or whatever, you will know better. Earth is not still hot from radioactive decay, it is still hot because it is in earlier stages of evolution as compared to Venus, Mars and Mercury. We live in a polymetamorphic system, as noted in this paper: http://vixra.org/pdf/1902.0059v1.pdf
Poly meaning many, meta meaning after and morphic meaning change. We live in a many-after-change system. Volcanoes and their appearances and activity (or lack of) are direct evidence of the fact that we are dealing with stars vastly different in age. As well it should be apparent that the youngest stars do not even have volcanoes, they are far too young and energetic.