Besides the obvious fact that evolution does not work that way, the relationships between these groups are not even remotely similar to this.
First, neither amoebae nor Paramecium nor Volvox are animals. Unicellular eukaryotes (organisms with a nucleus) are known as “protists”, though that is a wastebasket taxon. Animals (Animalia or Metazoa) are a specific group of multicellular eucaryotes, their sister group being the Choanoflagellates (who can be both free-living and colonial, strongly resemble the feeding cells of sponges, and the free-living ones share the spermatozoon’s unusual mode of flagellum propulsion). Aside from these and a few other small groups, the next “major” relative of the animals are the Fungi (and their relatives); together they are known as Ophistokonts.
Amoeba is a descriptive term for a cell that can change its form, forming parapods. Amoebae occur all across the eukaryotes and can be both “naked” or living in shells, (indeed, foraminifers and Radiolaria, far from being “simplest”, live within intricate shells) and are sometimes only a stage in the life-cycle. Indeed, amoeboids do not necessarily have to be unicellular: so-called cellular slime moulds are unicellular amoeboids that under certain circumstances congregate into a multicellular colonial amoeba (whereas in a plasmodial slime mold, such as the macroscopic Myxogastria, they fuse into a syncytium, a single enormous multi-nucleated cell), and even certain cell types within multicellular organism, such as macrophages, are amoeboid.
What you think of when you speak of “amoeba”, however, most likely is the taxon Amoebozoa, which even includes a genus called Amoeba (also, the most important taxa of slime moulds). However these are actually grouped with the ophistokonts (and a few small groups basal to the latter) as the Unikonts or Amorphea, though that is not certain, and we are now talking about pretty distant splits.
Deeper still is the gulf that divides Amoebozoa and Metazoa from Volvox and Paramecium. Whereas ophistokonts, together with a few obscure and poorly-understood organisms collectively known as “CRuMs”, form one main branch of eukaryotes known as the Podiates, all of them incapable of photosynthesis. Volvox and Paramecium, on the other hand, belong to the other main branch, the Diaphoretickes.
There are several basal groups of diaphoretics, such as the haphtophytes, whose relationships with each other and to the two major branches of the taxon are not settled.
The Archaeplastida, or plants sensu lato are one of the main branch of the diaphoretickes of great evolutionary significance. It was here that the primary endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria happened that is the origin of the plastids, i.e. chloroplasts and various derived organelles. In its ancestral form, the chloroplast uses chlorophyll a, which absorbs mostly red and blue-violet light and reflects blue-green light (thus cyanobacteria), as well as support structures known as phycobilisomes. The archaeplastids split into three group, named after the respective colour of their chloroplasts.
The most primitive group are the blue-green Glaucophytes, who are exclusively unicellular and have chloroplasts that are believed to have changed little from the original form.
The red algae (Rhodophyta) derive their eponymous red colouration fron their characteristic phycobilisome protein, Phycoerythrin, which allows for better absorption in deeper water (rhodophytes living in shallower water consequently have less Phycoerythrin so that the chlorophyl a can be seen). Their chloroplasts are also known as “rhodoplasts”.
The Viridiplantae or Chloroplastida (“green plants”) lack phycobilisomes. However, they contain another form of chlorophyll, chlorophyll b, which absorbs mostly orange-red and teal light. Thus, they can use the light avaible close to the water surface and on land (the part of the spectrum visible to humans) more effectively and are green rather than blue-green. Their plastids are also structured more efficiently and they store their starch within plastids. The Viridiplantae are divided into two main groups: The Chlorophyta, which are mostly unicellular - with Volvox displaying an interesting intermediate between unicellularity and multicellularity -, and the Charophyta, which include the Embryophytes (land plants).
The other main branch is the SAR supergroup, also known as Harosa. It has three major branches.
The Alveolata are distinguished by membrane-sacs (alveoli) below their outer membrane. They have acquired the ability of photosynthesis through secondary endosymbiosis - their plastids were acquired from rhodophytes and, as a result, they are surrounded by four membranes, rather than the two found in primary symbiotes; this ability has been lost secondarily in some predatory and parasitic taxa. Besides ciliates such as Paramecium, notable taxa of Alveolata include the Dinoflagellata, armoured planctonic algae responsible for red tides and mareel, and the Apicomplexa, non-photosynthetic parasites including the causatives of Malaria and Toxoplasmosis.
The Heterokonts or Straminophiles are a diverse group containing algae ranging from microplanckton to colossal kelp, as well as non-photosynthetic, “colourless” forms like the fungus-like water moulds, such as the pathogen that caused the Great Famine in 1840s Ireland. A characteristic trait is that their flagellated cells possess two unequal flagella. Like the Alveolata, their plastids come from rhodophytes through secondary endosymbiosis. It is, however, not known whether this happened independently or in a common ancestor of both branches - the colourless taxa are considered to be very basal. Early genetic studies suggested that Alveolata and heterokonts are sister groups, but later analyses contradict this.
The Rhizaria consist of the aforementioned Foraminifera and Radiolaria, as well as a morphologically heterogenous but strongly supported genetically Cercozoa. They do not conduct photosynthesis, with two exceptions, both amoeboid cercozoans. First, there are the Chloranachniophytes, who acquired chloroplasts through secondary endosymbiosis from green algae. In a second case, three species of the Genus Paulinella have gained chloroplasts from primary endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, independent of the archaeplastids, possibly as recently as 90 million years ago.
The Excavata are a collection of very basal flagellated eukaryotes. It is not certain whether they are a clade or several separate branches, nor how they relate to Diaphoretickes and Podiates. Among them are free-living life-forms, commensals and parasites, such as the infamous pathogen Trypanosoma. Some taxa, usually anaerobic internal parasites, have highly reduced, modified or even no mitochondria.
The Euglenids are a group notable for their surprisingly complex genome and being the only photosynthesis-conducting eukaryotes (without resorting to kleptoplasty, i.e. extracting chloroplasts from your food to use for yourself) outside of the Diaphoretickes; their chloroplasts seem to be derived from those of green algae, but there are also genetic traces of a now-lost red algae endosymbiont in the distant past.
This overview over the systematics of the Eukaryota is, of course, highly simplified.